What You Need to Know About Cystic Fibrosis

Although classic cases of cystic fibrosis are very rare among Asians, it is still a widely-known illness even in Singapore where no more 1 case is reported annually. However, there are variant forms of the disease which medical practitioners might not be aware of, making diagnosis and treatment almost impossible.

Causes and Inheritance

Cystic fibrosis primarily affects the lungs of a person. It’s a type of genetic diseases that causes a buildup of sticky and thick mucus in the lungs and other organs. This mucus can clog the airways, allowing an ideal environment for bacteria to thrive. This is turn leads to infections and other problems in the organs also affected by the buildup of the mucus.

Those who have this condition have mutations in their CFTR genes, which are responsible for water movement in the tissues and the transportation of chloride irons in the cells. Therefore organs that produce mucus are affected, which cause digestive problems and issues in fertility.

Most cases of cystic fibrosis are diagnosed among children, although some adults do not get a proper diagnosis until later in their lives. Most of the men suffer from infertility, while the women are prone to complications during pregnancy.

Diagnosing Cystic Fibrosis

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis can vary among patients but the most common signs to look out for include the following: persistent coughing and frequent incidences of lung infections, wheezing, shortness of breath, weight gain or poor growth, salty-tasting skin, and persistent problems in bowel movement.

These symptoms vary in their severity and complexity, which is why some patients are still able to live productive lives despite the disease. However, most of them are vulnerable to lung infections, liver disease, infertility, and malnutrition.

There is a newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in Singapore if the parents request for it. The earlier it is diagnosed, the better the chances of the infant having a better life. The newborn’s blood sample is screened for the presence of immunoreactive trypsinogen, which may be higher among babies with cystic fibrosis.

The result needs to be confirmed through sweat tests and genetic testing. For older children and adults, sweat and genetic testing are recommended especially if there are signs of recurring lung infections, chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps, and pancreatitis.

Lifestyle and Treatment

Unfortunately, there is no cure for cystic fibrosis yet, but the symptoms can be treated to avoid complications. However, treatment is unique for each patient and will involve several specialists depending on the symptoms and their severity. The goal of the treatment is for the person to get the right amount of nutrition, preventing intestinal blockage and lung infections, and to remove mucus buildup in the lungs.

Regular checkups are required to monitor abnormalities in the organs and to remove nasal polyp, mucus, and bowel blockage. In some cases, a feeding tube may be needed, or a lung transplant required if the infection is severe.

At home, the person is expected to monitor nutrient absorption, update immunizations, maintain proper fluid intake, and to take supplements.

Types of Injury that Cause Brain Trauma  


Here in Singapore, brain injury happens. Though it is unfortunate, you should not stop by accepting it. If you have a family member that endures brain trauma, it is critical that you understand everything about it so you can help the patient recover from this terrible ordeal. The support should not stop from the doctors and the therapists.


The first thing that you have to know is the types of injury that can lead to brain trauma. A severe brain injury happens when trauma to one’s brain creates significant neurological injury leading to physiologic changes. There are four types of injury that can cause brain trauma:

  • Toxic injuries: This brain injury involves toxic chemical agents. These toxic chemical agents can damage or even kill brain cells.
  • Closed head injuries: Closed head injuries are common. It is the type of injury that affects the inside of the skull. The impact of the injury will lead to bruising, bleeding, tissue damage and fluid build-up.
  • Anoxic injuries: Another common type of brain trauma injury is anoxic. This happens when the brain cells do not receive the right amount of oxygen thereby killing it.
  • Penetrating injuries: Penetrating injuries refer to the opening of the skull which is the result of gunshot wounds.


After knowing the types of injury, there are still many important things that you have to consider to fully understand its nature and its extent. The brain injury is rated using three levels – mild, moderate and severe. When you encounter brain trauma or injury, you have to ask the doctors its severity. The severity labels the degree of damage to the patient’s brain. Doctors use the Glasgow Coma Scale to rate the severity of the brain injury following the accident.

There is no denying that severe brain injury can happen – you just pray that it is not your friend or loved ones. You have to know that most of the causes of brain injury can be attributed to motor or vehicular accident. What should you do as a precaution when it is possible? You have to check your breaks of course and if it is not enough, make sure that you put your seat belts and that your airbags are functional.

If it is not enough to read some sources, it is time that you go to a doctor and personally ask details about brain injuries. The good news is that there are many doctors here in Singapore that can help you. Brain injury is no small thing. It should be dealt accordingly and with patience.

head injury

Effective Recovery Tips from Laser Eye Surgery

A lot of people have already decided to undergo a custom laser eye surgery not just to improve the quality of their eyesight but also to eliminate their dependence on eyeglasses and contact lenses. This is why knowing and understanding the risks and benefits that you can reap off in eye surgeries like LASIK, PRK and Epi-LASIK has already become of greater importance.


But your knowledge involving laser eye surgeries shouldn’t just stop there. Apart from knowing the risks involved in laser eye procedures, you should also be well-informed when it comes to speeding up the recovery time of your laser eye procedure. To give you an idea about this, here are several tips that you could use to speed up your healing and recovery process, and even help you avoid any complications after undergoing a laser eye surgery.

1. Get back into your daily activities one at a time.
After undergoing a laser eye surgery, it’s given that you won’t be able to do some driving-related activities, which is why it’s important that you find other transportation means to and from your Singapore eye clinic. Give yourself and your eyes the sufficient time it needs to rest before you start taking on your regular activities normally. Ease your way back to your usual flow of things and make sure that you take a day or two off your work or school to give way for adequate recovery and healing time.

2. Take baths instead of showers.
Taking a bath might protect your eyes better than you would in taking showers. Soap and shampoo drips could contaminate and irritate your newly operated eyes, which is why avoiding any form of contact with these products is a must. Getting a lasik job surgery done by a lasik singapore doctor is a safe procedure, but you still have to be careful of contamination. Water from your shower that directly hits your face might also cause complications when several droplets hit your eyes. Lastly, when drying yourself up, make sure that you avoid rubbing your eyes either with your hands or bath towel at all costs.

3. Visit your eye doctor regularly.
Regularly visiting your Singapore eye doctor is a good idea so that he can monitor the recovery progress and determine if you need certain types of medication like eye drops and pain killers to prevent eye infections. It would also help if you inform your doctor of any unusual discomfort and pain post-treatment, but keep in mind that blurred vision, itching, soreness and burning are common side effects as your recovery time progresses.


4. Take and use the prescribed medication.
LASIK, PRK and Epi-LASIK all have their own prescribed medications and eye drops to assist the procedure’s healing and recovery process. Using these eye drops are essential in speeding up your healing process and also in preventing any eye discomfort and dryness. Use the drops as prescribed by your doctor. Keep in mind though that one’s extent of eye drop usage varies, since some people tend to heal faster than others.

5. Wear some eye protection gear.
After getting a laser lasik eye surgery, ask your lasik surgeon to provide you with an eye shield gear to protect your eyes. Wear the gears given to you for a week or two to prevent any eye damage that might happen while you’re sleeping or when an inadvertent blow to your eye from another person or an object occurs. Do purchase a set of eye goggles too to prevent contamination from soap and shampoo as you shower. Other than that, constantly wearing your eye protection will help you resist the temptation of scratching and rubbing your eyes.

6. Get enough rest.
The time during your recovery and healing from a laser eye surgery should be spent resting not watching TV, reading, or working in front of the computer for long hours a day or two after the procedure. Take a good nap and go to bed immediately after undergoing a laser eye treatment.

7. Never touch your eyes after the procedure.
No matter how bad your eyes itch or burn, never touch them after your laser eye surgery. Scratching or rubbing your eyes is one of the natural tendencies that we are born with, and restraining yourself from doing so might be the most challenging thing you’ll ever face as your healing time progresses. But if the discomfort and pain that you’re feeling is unbearable, immediately consult your doctor to prescribe some good medications to help you alleviate the discomfort that you’re feeling.

By simply following these recovery tips, you can now easily speed up your healing and recovery time regardless if you’ve undergone LASIK, PRK or an Epi-LASIK Singapore eye surgery.